Technologiepreis - Technology Award 2005

Prof. Dr. Hisashi Kobayashi

Dr. François Dolivo

Dr. Evangelos S. Eleftheriou

  • Für ihre Pionierrolle bei der Einführung innovativer digitaler Signalverarbeitungs- und Codierverfahren in Festplattenspeichern auf der Basis von Partial Response Verfahren, Maximum Likelihood Sequence und Noise-Predictive Detection. Die resultierenden Fortschritte der Aufzeichnungskanäle waren ein entscheidender Faktor bei der einzigartigen Zunahme der Speicherdichte und Datenrate der Festplattenspeicher während der letzten Jahrzehnte.

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  • For their pioneering roles in the introduction of innovative digital signal processing and coding techniques into hard disk drives, based on partial response signaling, maximum likelihood sequence and noise-predictive detection. These advances in the recording channel were instrumental to the unique increase of the storage density and data rates of hard disk drives during the past decades.
  • Curriculum vitae of Prof. Dr. Hisashi Kobayashi  
    13.06.1938 Born in Tokyo, Japan.
    1957-1961 Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo.
    1961-1963 Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo.
    1963-1965 Engineer at Toshiba Co., Kawasaki, Japan.
    1965-1967 Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering, Princeton University.
    1967-1970 Research Staff Member, IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.
    1969-1970 Visiting Assistant Professor of System Science, UCLA.
    1971-1973 Manager, Systems Measurement & Modeling, IBM Research Center.
    1974-1980 Senior Manager, Systems Analysis and Algorithms, IBM Research Center.
    1974 Visiting Professor, University of Hawaii.
    1975 Visiting Professor, Stanford University.
    1979-1980 Visiting Professor, T.H. Darmstadt.
    1980 International Professor of Computer Science, University of Brussels.
    1981-1982 Department Manager, VLSI Design, IBM Research Center.
    1982-1986 Director, IBM Japan Science Institute (now IBM Tokyo Laboratory).
    Since 1986 Sherman Fairchild University Professor, Princeton University.
    1986-1991 Dean, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Princeton University.
    1991-1992 NEC Chair for Computer & Communication, University of Tokyo.
    1998-1999 BC ASI Visiting Fellow, University of Victoria, Canada.
    Recognitions and
    Awards
    1970 IBM Invention Achievement Award.
    1973 IBM Invention Achievement Award.
    1974 IBM Outstanding Contribution Award.
    1976 Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
    1979 Senior US Scientist Award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
    1980 Silver Core Award, International Federation of Information Processing.
    1984 IBM Japan Outstanding Contribution Award.
    1992 Elected to the Engineering Academy of Japan.
    2005 Fellow of the Institute of Electronic, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE) of Japan.


    Curriculum vitae of Dr. François Dolivo  
    17.04.1946 Born in Lausanne, Switzerland.
    1964-1969 Study in Electrical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    1969 Diploma in Electrical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    1969-1974 Study in Computer, Information, and Control Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, U.S.A.
    1972 M.S.E. degree in Computer, Information, and Control Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, U.S.A.
    1974 Ph. D. in Computer, Information, and Control Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, U.S.A.
    1974-1983 Research Staff Member in digital signal processing, IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland.
    1983-1993 Manager of Magnetic Recording group, IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland.
    1993-1996 Research Staff Member in wireless communications and mobile computing, IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland.
    Since 1996 Manager of the Pervasive Computing group, IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland.
    Recognitions and
    Awards
    1984 IBM Outstanding Innovation Award, Partial-Response with Maximum Likelihood (PRML) Magnetic Recording Channel.
    1990 IBM Supplemental Outstanding Innovation Award, PRML Magnetic Recording Channel.
    1994 a) IBM Corporate Award for PRML data channels for disk drives.
    b) PC Magazine 1994 Award for Technical Excellence, IBM s PRML and magnetoresistive hard disk technology.
    c) IBM Research Division Award, SAMBA wireless LAN.
    1997 Member of the IBM Academy of Technology.
    1999 IBM Research Division Outstanding Contribution Award, IBM Java card.
    2000 IEEE Third Millennium Medal.
    2001 IEEE Fellow.
    2005 IEEE Reynold B. Johnson Information Storage Award.
    Dr. Dolivo helds 12 patents in the USA.


    Curriculum vitae of Dr. Evangelos Eleftheriou  
    15.02.1959 Born in Aliveri, Euboea, Greece.
    1979 Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, Patras University, Greece.
    1981 Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
    1985 Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
    1986 Research Staff Member, IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rueschlikon, Switzerland.
    1998 Manager of the ZRL Recording and Transmission Technologies Projects.
    2004 Manager of the ZRL Storage Technologies Projects.
    Recognitions and
    Awards
    1989 IBM Outstanding Innovation Award.
    1997 IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award.
    1999 IBM Master Inventor.
    2000 IBM Outstanding Innovation Award.
    2001 Fellow of the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE).
    2003 Co-recipient of the IEEE Communications Society Leonard G. Abraham Prize Paper Award.
    2005 a) IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award.
    b) IBM Fellow.
    c) Member of the IBM Academy of Technology.
    Dr. Eleftheriou helds 25 patents in the USA.
     

    Magnetic Data Recording for Hard Disks

    Harddisks are indispensable components of any computer system from the smallest mobile PC all the way up to the biggest server system. They are used as secondary storage to safely hold system and user data and programs even at times when the computer is switched off. Hard disks are also the storage device of choice in an increasing variety of consumer products that require massive amounts of cheap non-volatile storage, such as digital video recorders, MP3 players, mobile phones, or digital cameras. Storage density and data rates of hard disks have grown at an astounding pace during the past decades; at the same time, cost per information unit stored on the disks magnetic media has decreased dramatically. This was made possible bye continuous technical advances of all components of the system: recording heads, storage media, disk drive mechanics and electronics. As part of the drive electronics, the recording channel detects the analog signal coming from the read head of the drive and converts it into a bit sequence. At the high storage densities and data rates of modern disk drives, reliable signal detection representes a formidable task because the signal usually is extremely weak, distorted, and buried in noise coming from the magnetic media, the electronics, and neighboring data. Traditionally, recording channels in hard disks used a peak detection scheme to recover the correct bits from the read signals. This straightforward technique served the disk drive industry well in the first three decades of its existence.

    It was Hisashi Kobayashi who in his 1970/71 papers pointed out that a digital magnetic recording channel can be viewed as theoretically equivalent to a baseband data transmission system with "partial-response" signaling and that the Viterbi algorithm can be used to obtain maximum likelihood sequence detection of the symbol sequence that has been coded by partial-response channel signaling. This dynamic programming alogrithm, named after its developer Andrew Viterbi (Winner of the 1994 Eduard Rhein Basic Research Award), had originally been conceived for decoding convolutional codes. Kobayashi s analysis indicated that a detector based on the above principles would have significant advantages over the bit-by-bit decision technique employed in the conventional peak detection technique.

    As it is often the case with groundbreaking insights, Kobayashi s idea was ahead of its time: Initially, no one in industry or academia pursued in further until, in the second half of the 1970s, François Dolivo systematically investigated signal processing alternatives for disk drives including an approach in which the read signal takes the form of a partial-response class IV (PRIV) signal. The investigations revealed significant potential gains in recording density and provided the motivation to verify and demonstrate the technique in a prototype system. In subsequent years, Dolivo and his team at IBM s Zurich Research Laboratory, together with the disk drive developement organization in Rochester, MN, devised and developed all necessary elements of a new recording technology which they called "Partial Response Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection" (PRML). In 1990, their work culminated in the announcement of the industry s first hard disk drive product using the new channel. PRML, which rapidly became the de-facto industry standard, boosted storage density and data rates enabling for a number of years compound annual growth rates of 60% and 40%, respectively.

    In the second half of the 1990 s, the continued increase of areal density an data rates dictated a departure from the existing read channel technology. In response to this need, Evangelos Eleftheriou came up with the concept of "Noise-Predictive Maximum Likelihood" (NPML) detection for magnetic recording. The starting point of this method was the observation that the noise which accompanies the useful signal coming from the disk s read head is not completely random, as assumed until then. To account for this effect, NPML introduced a noise prediction/ whitening process into the computation algorithm of the detector. NPML combined with additional sophisticated signal processing and coding techniques enabled further substantial increases in linear recording density. The new architecture was introduced into IBM disk drive products in 2000. Today, NPML and variations thereof have become the accepted recording technique in the hard disk industry.

    By presenting its 2005 Technology Award to Hisashi Kobayashi, François Dolivo, and Evangelos Eleftheriou, the EDUARD RHEIN FOUNDATION honors three pioneers of magnetic recording whose contributions to the field were key to the unique progress of hard disk drives during the past decades.
     
     
     
    Dr. Sönke Mehrgardt,
    SODANA CONSULTING, Deisenhofen 

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